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Four Passages From the Dramatic

Writings of Shakespeare

莎士比亚戏剧精选四段

(1)

Twelfth Night

II.iv.103-117

[DUKE OF ILLYRIA]

What dost thou know?

[VIOLA]

Too well what love women to men may owe.

In faith, they are as true of heart as we.

My father had a daughter loved a man

As it might be perhaps, were I a woman,

I should your lordship.

[DUKE OF ILLYRIA]

And what's her history?

[VIOLA]

A blank, my lord. She never told her love,

But let concealment, like a worm i'th'bud,

Feed on her damask cheek. She pined in thought;

And, with a green and yellow melancholy,

She sat like Patience on a monument,

Smiling at grief. Was not this love indeed?

We men may say more, swear more; but indeed

Our shows are more than will; for still we prove

Much in our vows but little in our love.

男人的爱与女人的爱

[伊利里亚公爵]

您深知的是什么?

[薇奥拉]

深知女人可以如何热爱男人。

真的,她们象我们一样真心。

当年我爹有个女儿爱上个郎,

正如,假如我是女的,也许?#19968;?#29233;上爵爷您。

[伊利里亚公爵]

结果她的遭遇呢?

[薇奥拉]

是片空白。她没有透露她的爱意,

却让这秘密,象蓓蕾中的害虫,

吃她淡红的面颊来养生。哀思中憔悴了,

带着又绿又黄的忧郁,

她如墓碑般?#24515;?#24615;,坐着,

看着悲伤微笑。那?#20849;?#26159;真爱吗?

我们男的说更多话、发更多?#27169;?#23454;际上却虚饰多于真情;

常见誓言夸张, 情意有限。

【作者简介】

威廉莎士比亚,英国历史上,乃至世界历史上最伟大的戏剧大师,他于1564年出生于英国中部的斯特拉夫镇.十三四岁时因家庭破产而辍学。之后,他?#32676;?#24403;过士兵、教师、剧院的杂役、演员和剧团股东。传说他出生的日期为四?#38706;?#21313;三日。莎士比亚的语言异常凝美,内涵也无比丰富。

Why, How Know You That I Am in Love?

[SPEED]

Marry, by these special marks: first, you have learned, like Sir Proteus,to wreathe your arms like a malcontent, to relish a love-song like a robin-red-breast, to walk alone like one that had the pestilence, to sign like a schoolboy that had lost his A B C, to weep like a young wench that had buried her grandam, to fast like one that takes diet, to watch like one that fears robbing, to speak puling like a beggar at Hallowmas. You were wont, when you laughed, to crow like a cock; when you walked, to walk like one of the lions; When you fasted, it was presently after dinner; when you looked sadly, it was for want of money. And now you are metamorphosed with a mistress, that when I look on you, I can hardly think you my master.

哟,您怎知?#19968;?#20102;相思病?

[史比德]

哎呀,就是从这些特殊的迹象嘛:首先,你学会了,与?#31456;?#24093;斯少爷 一样,像个不满现状的人般盘着双臂;学会了象只知更鸟般唱着情歌;学会了?#35272;?#29420;往,象个染了瘟疫的人;学会了叹息,象个丢了启蒙课本的学生哥儿;学会了哭泣,象埋葬了老奶奶的小姑娘;学会了节?#24120;?#35937;需要节制饮食的人;学会了废寝,象担心盗窃的人;学会了啼哭着说话,象万圣节的叫化?#21360;?#21407;来嘛,您大笑起来,象雄鸡打鸣儿;走起路来象狮子;刚吃饱才会禁?#24120;?#27809;钱才会没精打采。现在嘛,有?#35829;?#19978;?#22235;?#20063;全变了,使得我看着您,却险些儿想?#40644;?#24744;是我的主?#21360;?br>
Love Song

How use doth breed a habit in a man!

This shadowy desert, unfrequented woods,

I better brook than flourishing peopled towns.

Here can I sit alone, unseen of any,

And to the nightingale抯 complaining notes

Tune my distresses and record my woes.

O thou that dost inhabit in my breast,

Leave not the mansion so long tenantless,

Lest, growing ruinous, the building fall

And leave no memory of what it was.

情 歌

人总会习与性成哩!棗

这荫翳无人之地、荒僻的丛箐,

我乐意接受,甚于熙攘的都城。

这里我可以单个儿坐着,都无?#24605;?br>
陪着那夜莺的哀怨歌声,

咏出我的苦恼,唱出我的悲愁。

啊,您这栖身在我胸?#25345;?#30340;人儿,

不要让这房子这么长?#27599;?#26103;,

惟恐它破坏了会倒下,

使得无?#24605;?#36215;它昔日的光华。

【注释】

A Midsummer Night's Dream

The lunatic, the lover, and the poet

Are of imagination all compact.

One sees more devils than vast hell can hold:

That is the madman. The lover, all as frantic,

Sees Helen's beauty in a brow of Egypt.

The poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling,

Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven;

And as imagination bodies forth

The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen

Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing

A local habitation and a name.

Such tricks hath strong imagination

That, if it would but apprehend some joy,

It comprehends some bringer of that joy,

Or in the night, imagining some fear,

How easy is a bush supposed a bear!

《仲夏夜之梦》[忒修斯]

疯?#21360;?#24773;人、墨客,

全都是幻想造的。

那?#24605;?#30340;鬼,无垠的地狱也装不下:

那就是疯?#21360;?#24773;人,极度狂乱,

在黑姑娘的脸上,他看见海伦的面相。

诗人的眼睛,激扬一转,

就扫视了?#24605;?#22825;上,天上?#24605;洌?br>
正如幻想人不可思议的事物的

具体呈现,诗人的?#20351;?br>
给它们形状,使如烟的无,

化作栖身有地的?#23567;?br>
丰富的幻想,会耍这些戏法,

所以每想起什么欢乐,

就替欢乐补上个原因;

有时在夜里,幻想着什么惶恐,

好容?#35013;?#19968;棵矮树看作?#35829;?

0 Love

Her image accompanied me even in places the most hostile to ro mance.

On Saturday evenings when my aunt went marketing I had to go to carry some of the parcels. We walked through the flaring streets, jostled by drunken men and bargaining women, amid the curses of laborers, the shrill litanies of shop-boys who stood on guard by the barrels of pigs cheeks, the nasal chanting of streetsingers, who sang a come-all-you about O扗onovan Rosa, or a ballad about the troubles in our native land. These noises converged in a single sensation of life for me: I imagined that I bore my chalice safely through a throng of foes. Her name sprang to my lips at moments in strange prayers and praises which I myself did not understand. My eyes were often full of tears (I could not tell why) and at times a flood from my heart seemed to pour itself out into my bosom. I thought little of the footer. I did not know whether I would ever speak to her or not or, if I spoke to her, how I could tell her of my confused adoration. Buttery body was like a harp and her words and gestures were like fingers running upon the wires.

One evening I went into the back drawing-room in which the priest had died. It was a dark rainy evening and there was no sound in the house. Through one of the broken panes I heard the rain impinge upon the earth, the fine incessant needles of water playing in the sodden beds. Some distant lamp or lighted window gleamed below me. I was thankful that I could see so little. All my senses seemed to desire to veil themselves and, feeling that I was about to slip from them, I pressed the palms of my hands together until they trembled, murmuring: 揙 love! O love! many times.

?#35789;?#26159;在最不可能勾起浪漫之情的?#36710;?#37324;,她的形象也始?#24352;?#20276;着我。星期六晚上,我婶婶要上街去买东西,我得跟着去帮她拿购买的物品,灯火通明的大街上熙熙攘攘,我和婶婶在醉汉和?#26088;?#36824;价的妇人们中间挤来挤去。苦力们在咒骂着;年轻的店员们站在?#30333;?#29482;头肉的?#23601;?#36793;上,一边看护着货物,一边尖声地招?#21487;?#24847;;街头的歌?#32622;?#21453;复单调地哼着一首有关“?#32511;?#32435;凡?萝莎”的,叫做“你们都来吧”的歌曲,或者唱根据我们当地人的忧愁而编成的民歌;在我心?#24656;校?#36825;各色各样的声响汇成了一股生活的激情:我想象着自己捧着圣餐酒杯,安全通过了一大群敌人的包围。有时候,我在祈祷时连自己也不知道在念些什么,可是她的名字却跳到了嘴边。泪水常常充满我的眼眶(我也说不出是何原故)。有时,我内心一阵激动,泪水如潮,似乎从心脏涌流遍了整个胸膛。我很少想到未来,也不知道是否会与她?#24822;福患词?#19982;她?#24822;福?#25105;又如何向她倾吐我对她敬慕的?#19995;用?#30462;的心情呢??#27426;?#25105;的身子?#36335;?#26159;一把竖琴,她的言行举止就象是?#31181;福?#25320;动着我的心弦。

一天傍晚,我来到了教士去世的那间后客厅。这是一个阴雨绵绵、漆黑的夜晚。整幢房子一片寂?#30149;?#36879;过一块破碎的?#23433;?#29827;,传来了雨水着地的声响。连绵的细雨犹如行行绣针,洒向湿透的花圃。低头望去,远处不知是路灯还是住家的灯火在?#20102;?#30528;光芒。看不到什么东西?#35789;?#25105;感到欣慰。我的全部感官似乎都愿与外界隔绝,便把?#32456;平?#21512;在一起,直到双手微微颤动起来,嘴里多次喃喃念着:“啊,爱情!啊,爱情!”



【作者简介】

?#26448;?#26031;?乔埃斯(1882-1941),著名小说家,名作?#23567;?#23588;利西斯》。本文节选自其短篇小说《初恋》。

Turning-point of our Life

My father was, I am sure, intended by nature to be a cheerful, kindly man. Until he was thirty-four years old he worked as a farm-hand for a man named Thomas Butterworth whose place lay near the town of Biddable, Ohio. He had then a horse of his own and on Saturday evenings drove into town to spend a few hours in social intercourse with other farm-hands. In town he drank several glasses of beer and stood about in Ben Head's saloon-crowded on Saturday evenings with visiting farm-hands. Songs were sung and glasses thumped on the bar. At ten o'clock my father drove home along a lonely country road, made his horse comfortable for the night and himself went to bed, quite happy in his position in life. He had at that time no notion of trying to rise in the world.

It was in the spring of his thirty-fifth year that father married my mother, then a country schoolteacher, and in the following spring I came wriggling and crying into the world. Something happened to the two people. They became ambitious. The American passion for getting up in the world took possession of them.

It may have been that mother was responsible. Being a schoolteacher she had no doubt read books and magazines. She had, I presume, read of how Garfield, Lincoln, and other Americans rose from poverty to fame and greatness and as I lay beside her---in the days of her lying-in---she may have dreamed that I would some day rule men and cities. At any rate she induced father to give up his place as a farm-hand, sell his horse and embark on an independent enterprise of his own. She was a tall silent woman with a long nose and troubled Grey eyes. For herself she wanted nothing. For father and myself she was incurably ambitious.

【注释】

lying-in:产期,?#32622;?br>
生活的转折点

舍伍德?安德生

我相信父亲天生就是一个快活、和善的人。他当过农场雇工,在俄亥俄州比德韦尔镇附近为一个名叫?#26032;?#26031;?马特活斯的人干活,一直干到三十四岁。那时他自己有一匹马。星期六晚上,他总要骑着它到镇上去,跟其他雇工们一起聊上几个小时。在镇上,他总泡在本?黑?#26579;?吧间里,喝上几杯啤酒。每适星期六晚上,酒吧间里总是挤满了前来消遣的雇工,到处是歌声和酒杯碰击酒吧的声音。一到十点,父亲就沿着一条?#24605;?#31232;少的乡间小道骑马回家。安顿好马以后,自己也就上床睡觉了。他对他所处的地位是相当满意的。那时他还没有要在这个世道上向上爬的念头。

在他三十五岁那年的春天,他和我母亲结婚了。当时母?#36164;?#20065;村学校的一名教师。第二年春天,我就呱呱坠地了。从那时起,他俩也发生了变化,开始变得雄心勃勃了。美国人的那种要出人头地的强烈欲望占据了他们的心灵。

可能这要怪我母?#20303;?#22905;是一个教师,肯定读过一些书和?#21448;尽?#25105;猜想,她读过有关伽菲尔德、林肯和其他一些美国人是怎样?#24551;?#33510;人变成有声望的伟人的书籍;或许,在她的产期里,她也梦想过躺在她身边的我,有朝一?#25214;?#20250;去?#25345;?#20154;们?#32479;鞘小2还?#24590;么说,是她劝说父?#29366;?#25481;雇工工作,卖掉那匹马,去从事一项独立的?#20081;怠?#22905;个子挺高,沉默寡言,长长的鼻子,一双灰眼睛,流露出忧郁的神情。她为她自己并无所求,可为父亲和我,却有着无法遏制的勃勃野心。

【作者简介】

舍伍德?安德生(1876-1941),美国小说家,著名作品?#23567;?#20420;亥俄州温涅斯堡镇》。本文节选自短篇小说《?#21834;貳?br>
The Charm

By the time they at last came to speech they were alone in one of the rooms-remarkable for a fine portrait over the chimneyplace-out of which their friends had passed, and the charm of it was that even before they had spoken they had practically arranged with each other to stay behind to talk, The charm, happily, was in other things too-partly in there being scarce a spot at Weathered without something to stay behind for. It was in the way the autumn day looked into the hilt windows as it waned; the way the red light, breaking at the close from under a low somber sky, reached out in a long shaft and played over old wainscots, old tapestry, old gold, old color. It was most of all perhaps in the way she came to him as if ,since she had been turned on to deal with the simpler sort, he might, should he choose to keep the whole thing down, just take her mild attention for a part of her general business. As soon as he heard her voice, however, the gap was filled up and the missing link supplied, the slight irony he divined in her attitude lost its advantage. He almost jumped at it to get there before her. "I met you years and years ago in Rome. I remember all about it." She confessed to disappointment---she had been so sure he didn't; and to prove how well he did he began to pour forth the particular recollections that popped up as he called for them. Her face and her voice, all at his service now, worked the miracle---the impression operating like the torch of a lamplighter who touches into flame, one by one, a long row of gas jets.



亨利??#26448;?#26031;

到了他们最后开?#32423;?#35805;时,一间屋子里只有他们两个人--壁炉架上着一幅精美的画像,显得很别致--他们的朋友都走出屋子了,妙就妙在他们还没有讲话,实际上双方?#35328;级?#35201;留下来谈谈。妙的是妙处不仅于?#32781;?#37096;?#32622;?#22788;还在于韦瑟恩德没有一处不是值得留下来的。还妙在秋日西斜,那样照在高高的?#30333;?#19978;;还妙在红霞在低低的、暗淡的上?#31449;?#22836;断裂,化成一长道光泽,在年代悠久的护壁和挂毯上,在陈旧的镶金和色彩上闪动。最最妙的是她向他走来的样子,她?#28909;?#34987;用来应付比较简单的游客,如果他想把整个事情遮掩过去,他满可以把她对他的适度的照顾当作她一般职责的一部分。?#27426;?#20182;一听到她的声音,空白就填满了,失去的那一环也补足了,他觉察到她态度中带有的轻微的嘲弄成分也?#40644;?#20316;用了。他几乎对她的嘲弄感到欣尉,这样好先开口。“好多好多年?#22467;?#25105;在罗马见到过您,这一切我都记得。”她承认她很失望--她一直肯定他不记得了;为了证明他记得清清楚楚,他开始滔滔不绝地讲一桩桩召之即来的具体的回忆。她的脸、她的声音,现在都听从他的使唤,出现了奇迹--其效果就象点灯人所用的火炬,把一长排的煤气喷嘴一个个地点燃了。

【作者简介】

亨利??#26448;?#26031;(1843-1916),美国文学家,后移居伦敦。重要作品?#26657;骸?#32654;国人》(1877),《戴西??#26700;鍘?Daisy Miller)等等。本文节先自其小说《丛?#31181;?#30340;野兽》。

Nothing but an Assumption

As I walked home in a pensive mood, my vanity got the better of my pity. I could not but highly plume myself on my masterly management in getting rid of Bartleby. Masterly I call it, and such it must appear to any dispassionate thinker. The beauty of my procedure seemed to consist in its perfect quietness. There was no vulgar bullying,no bravado of any sort, no choleric hectoring, and striding to and fro across the apartment, jerking out vehement commands for Bartleby to bundle himself off with his beggarly traps. Nothing of the kind. Without loudly bidding Bartleby depart as an inferior genius might have done I assumed the grown that depart he must; and upon that assumption built all I had to say. The more I thought over my procedure, the more I was charmed with it. Nevertheless, next morning, upon awakening, I had my doubts I had somehow slept off the fumes of vanity. One of the coolest and wisest hours a man has, is just after he awakes in the morning. My procedure seemed as sagacious as ever but only in theory. How it would prove in practice---there was the rub. It was truly a beautiful thought to have assumed Bartleby's departure; but, after all, that assumption was simply my own, and none of Bartleby's. The great point was, not whether I had assumed that he would quit me, but whether he would repress so to do. He was more a man of preferences than assumptions.

?#36824;?#26159;个设想

赫尔曼?梅尔维尔

我走在回家的路上,沉思着,我的虚荣心胜过了怜悯之心。我撵走巴特比,?#25165;?#24471;十分高明到家,禁不住自鸣得意起来。我称之为高明到家,任何不带偏见看问题的人也定然抱有同?#23567;?#25972;个过程的妙处似乎就在于绝对的心平气和。没有低级?#39038;?#30340;持强欺弱,没有任何形式的虚张声势,没有怒气冲冲的威?#37096;?#21523;,也没有在室内大步踱来踱去,气势汹汹地嚷着,命令巴特比连同他那叫化?#24433;?#30340;随身物一同滚?#21834;?#36825;样的事儿丝毫没?#23567;?#25105;没有高声命令巴特比走--才能低下一点的就可能那么干了--我的假设是他非走不可,我讲的每一句话都是以这一假设为依据的。对于这个过程,?#20197;?#24819;越觉得陶醉其中了。但是,第二天早?#35838;?#19968;醒?#36879;?#21040;怀疑--不知怎的,这一觉睡走?#22235;?#34394;荣心的迷雾。一个人最冷静最明智的时刻就是早晨刚刚醒来以后。我的做法似乎仍象以前一样高超精明--但那只是从理论上?#30149;?#23454;践证明如?#25991;?-定会有冲突。认为巴特比已离去,这确实是一个很美的想法?#22351;?#36825;毕竟是我自己的设想,不是巴特比的。根本的问题不在于我是不是假设他愿意离开我,而是他愿不愿这样做。 他是一个凭意愿办事的人,而不是一个凭假设办事的人。

【作者简介】

赫尔曼?梅尔维尔(1819-1891),美国小说家,名作?#23567;?#33707;比-迪克》。本文节选自其小说《缮写员-华尔街的一个故事》。

Under the Power of Nature

During the whole of a dull, dark, and soundless day in the autumn of the year, when the clouds hung up pressively low in the heavens, I had been passing alone, on horseback, through a singularly dreary tract of country; and at length found myself, as the shades of the evening drew on, within view of the melancholy House of Usher . I knew not how it was---but, with the first glimpse of the building, a sense of insufferable gloom pervaded my spirit. I say insufferable; for the feeling was unrelieved by any of that half-pleasurable, because poetic , sentiment with which the mind usually receives even the sternest natural images of the desolate or terrible, I looked upon the scene before me---upon the mere house, and the simple landscape features of the domain, upon the bleak walls, upon the vacant eye-like windows, upon a few randy sedges, and upon a few white trunks of decayed trees---with an utter depression of soul which I can compare to no earthly sensation more properly than to the afterdream of the reveler upon opium; the bitter lapse into everyday life ,the hideous dropping off of the veil. There was an iciness, a sinking, a sickening of the heart, an unredeemed torture into ought of the sublime. What was it I paused to think what was it that so unnerved me in the contemplation of the House of Usher? It was a mystery all insoluble; nor could I grapple with the shadowy fancies that crowded upon me as I pondered. I was forded to fall back upon the unsatisfactory conclusion, that while, beyond doubt, there are combinations of very simple natural objects which have the power of thus affecting us, still the analysis of this power lies among considerations beyond our depth.

【作者简介】

埃?#24405;?爱伦坡(1809-1849),美国作家,其诗歌和小说受到推崇。本文节选自其短篇小说《厄?#27426;?#23429;第的倒塌》。

在自然威力之下

埃?#24405;?爱伦坡

那年秋天某日,天气阴沉、昏暗而?#26088;?#38745;,云层低压,令人窒息。整整一天,我独自一人策马行进,穿过一条异常沉闷的乡间小路?#33618;?#33394;?#30423;?#26102;分,我已经不知不觉来到那?#26412;?#30446;?#36175;?#30340;凄凉的厄?#27426;?#23429;第这个地方。但是,不知怎的--头一眼望见这幢房子,就被一种令?#22235;?#20197;忍受的阴郁窒闷住我的心。我?#30340;?#20197;忍受,那是因为?#35789;?#20154;们看到最最严峻、荒凉或可怕的自然景象时,头脑里通常还?#24515;持?#30001;景象的富有诗意所产生的几分快?#26657;?#20294;此情此景却丝?#28872;黄?#27492;种感情。我看着眼前的情景--宅第本身,房?#21448;?#22260;单调的景象,光?#21644;?#30340;墙壁,空空的、眼睛窟窿似的窗户,几丛杂乱的菅茅,几株灰白的枯树--心情十分沮丧,同人世间任何心情相比,把它比作过足?#40644;?#28895;瘾的人,?#29992;位?#20013;醒来,回到现实生活里的痛苦心情,最为?#23454;?#20102;。心中一凉,只觉得往下沉,难受极了。还有一种不可驱除的凄凉之?#26657;?#26080;论作何设想也不能激起我的兴致。那么,究竟是什么--我停下来考虑--究竟是什?#35789;?#25105;在凝望厄?#27426;?#23429;第?#27604;绱诵姆?#24847;乱呢?这完全是一个无法解答的谜;在我考虑的时候,我?#38498;?#37324;充满?#22235;?#27169;糊糊的想法,却无法弄清是怎么回事。我只好回到那个不能令人满意的结论上来,即:尽管一些非常简单的自然景物结合在一起,也无疑具有影响我们的威力,但要分析这种威力却超过了我们思考的深度。

Accepting The Command of The Army

From A Letter to His Wife, 1775 by George Washington

You may believe me, when I assure you in the most solemn manner that, so far from seeking this employment, I have used every effort in my power to avoid it, not only from my unwillingness to part with you and the family, but from a consciousness of its being a trusty too great for my capacity; and I should enjoy more real happiness in one month with you at home than I have the most distant prespect of finding abroad, if my stay were to be seven times seven years. But as it has been a kind of destiny that has thrown me upon this service, I shall hope that my undertaking it is designed to answer some good purpose...

I shall rely confidently on that Providence which has heretofore preserved and been bountiful to me, not doubting but that I shall return safe to you in the fall. I shall feel no pain from the toil or danger of the campaign; my unhappy pines will flow from the uneasiness I know you will feel from being left alone. I therefore beg that you will summon your whole fortitude, and pass your time as agreeably as possible. Nothing will give me so much sincere satisfaction as to hear this, and to hear it from your own pen.

受命统率全军

乔治?华盛顿

你可以相信我,我极其庄?#31995;?#21521;你保证我根本没有追求过这项任命,而是竭尽全力,千方百?#39057;?#22238;避它。这不仅是因为我不愿意同你以及全家人?#30452;穡?#32780;且因为我深知责任重大,非我力所能?#21834;?#21478;外,?#28909;?#25105;出门数十载寻求前景非常遥远的幸福,那还比不上在家中与你相聚一个月那样真正幸福。但是,?#28909;幻?#36816;已赋予我这个?#22993;?#25105;希望,?#25165;?#25105;来承担这个任务是为了使我有所建树......

我将信赖一直保佑我和降福于我的?#31995;郟?#28145;信到秋天我将平安地回到你身边。对出征所带来的艰辛和危险,我不会感到痛苦;使我难过的是我知道你独自一人留在家中必然感到焦?#36963;话病?#22240;?#32781;?#25105;恳求你鼓起全部勇气,尽量愉快地过日?#21360;?#27809;有什么比听到你过得愉快的消息--并且是从你的笔下听到这消息,能使我感到更大的欣慰了。

【作者简介】

乔治?华盛顿:出生于1732年2月22日,美国第一届总统(1789年4月-1797年3月)。

Letter to Lord Chesterfield

February 7,1755 一七五五年二月七日

My Lord:

I have been lately informed, by the proprietor of the World, that two papers, in which my Dictionary is recommended to the Public, were written by your Lordship. To be so distinguished, is an honor, which, being very little accustomed to fervors from the great, I know not well how to receive, or in what terms to acknowledge.

When, upon some slight encouragement, I first visited your Lordship, I was overpowered, like the rest of mankind, by the enchantment of your address; and could not forbear to wish that I might boast myself Le vainqueur du vainqueur de la terre; -that I might obtain that regard for which I saw the world contending; but I found my attendance so little encouraged, that neither pride nor modesty would suffer me to continue it. When I had once addressed your Lordship in public, I had exhausted all the art of pleasing which a retired and uncourtly scholar can possess. I had done all that I could; and no man is well pleased to have his all neglected, be it ever so little.

Seven years, my Lord, have now past, since I waited in your outward rooms, or was repulsed from your door; during which time I have been pushing on my work through difficulties, of which it is useless to complain, and have brought it, at last, to the verge of publication, without one act of assistance, one word of encouragement, or one smile of fervor. Such treatment I did not expect, for I never had a Patron before.

The shepherd in Virgule grew at last acquainted with Love, and found him a native of the rocks.

Is not a Patron, my Lord, one who looks with unconcern on a man struggling for life in the water, and, when he has reached ground, encumbers him with help? The notice which you have been pleased to take of my labors, had it been early, had been kind; but it has been delayed till I am indifferent, and cannot enjoy it; till I am solitary, and cannot impart it; till I am known, and do not want it. I hope it is no very cynical asperity not to confess obligations where no benefit has been received, or to be unwilling that the Public should consider me as owing that to a Patron, which Providence has enabled me to do for myself.

Having carried on my work thus far with so little obligation to any favorer of learning, I shall not be disappointed though I should conclude it, if less be possible, with less; for I have been long wakened from that dream of hope, in which I once boasted myself with so much exultation, my Lord.

Your Lordship's most humble,

most obedient servant,



致切斯特菲尔德伯爵书

塞缪尔??#24049;?#36874;

伯爵大人:

"世界?#21448;?quot;业主最近告诉我,两篇向公众推荐我所编词典的文章是大人的手笔。承蒙如此推崇,不胜荣幸。只是我素来?#36824;?#20110;贵人的恩?#20572;?#23454;在不知该如何领情,或以何言词来答谢。

?#32972;酰?#21463;到些许鼓励,造访大人时,我一如其余万民百姓,为您富有魅力的谈吐所折服,不禁奢望能?#22312;?quot;世界征服者的征服者";--我虽?#33618;?#30585;举世之人为博得大人眷?#32781;?#31454;相争斗,却仍不免奢望自己或可身受大人关?#26657;?#19981;料晋谒之后,竟未得丝毫鼓励,自尊自惭之?#27169;?#19981;容?#20197;?#27425;登门。我是个闲散书生,不?#21697;畛校?#20197;前当众向大人致意时,实?#21568;?#23613;了取宠之能事。我已做了所能做的一?#26657;蝗欢?#20542;全力而遭冷遇,世上是决不会有人引以为乐的,?#35789;?#20320;所做的微乎其微。

伯爵大人,自我在府上外房恭候,或被拒之门外以来,七年已经逝去;在此期间,我自披?#37117;?#22362;持编纂工作,艰苦?#36171;ⅲ?#35828;也无益。而今,词典出版在即,我未领受一次资助,未听到一句鼓励之辞,未看到一丝赞赏的微笑。这类厚赐我本未指望,因为我从不曾有过任何庇护人。

维吉尔笔下的牧童终于认清了爱神,发现他原?#35789;?#34542;荒野人。

伯爵大人,如果有人在落水者?#27492;勒?#25166;时袖手?#24616;郟?#33853;水者?#20064;?#21518;才给以援手,这样的人可以称为恩人吗?您现在对我的辛勤劳动所表示的关注,倘来得早些,?#20197;?#19981;领情?可惜为时过晚,我已无动于衷,无从消受;我已孓然一身,无法与人共享;况且我已成名,无需大人关注了。我?#35789;?#24681;典,无须承情;?#31995;?#21161;我独立完成工作,我自不愿公众以为有庇护者相助;这总不致被看作刻薄无礼吧!

我未领受任何关怀学术者的恩情,便把工作?#24179;?#21040;今日的局面,所以在这项工作行将结束时,自然不会因为丝毫不能得到恩情而感到失望,因为?#20197;?#24050;从希望的梦想中清醒过来--在那梦想中?#20197;?#19968;度扬扬自得,?#22312;?#20026;大?#22235;?br>
最卑顺的仆人

塞缪尔??#24049;?#36874;

【作者简介】

塞缪尔??#24049;?#36874;(1709-1784):英国散文家、文艺评论家、词典编撰家。

Letter to Mrs. Bixby

Executive Mansion, Washington,

Nov. 21, 1864

Mrs. Bixby,

Boston, Massachusetts,

Dear Madam,

I have been shown in the files of the War Department a statement of the Adjutant General of Massachusetts that you are the mother of five sons who have died gloriously on the field of battle. I feel how weak and fruitless must be any words of mine which should attempt to beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot refrain from tendering to you the consolation that may be found in the thanks of the Republic they died to save. I pray that our heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement, and leave you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost, and the solemn pride that must be Yours to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of freedom.

Yours very sincerely and respectfully,

Abraham Lincoln

by Abraham Lincoln

致比克靳比夫人的信

亚伯拉罕?林肯 华盛顿总统府

一八六四年十一?#38706;?#21313;一日

马萨诸塞州,波士顿

比克斯比夫人

亲爱的夫人:

在送我批阅的陆军部?#34507;鋼校?#25105;看到一份马萨诸塞州陆军副官长写的报告,?#30340;?#20415;是有五个儿子光荣牺牲在战场上的那位母?#20303;?#25105;深深感到,无论我企图用什么言词,来排遣如此巨大的损失给您带来的悲痛,都一定是无力和徒劳的。但?#19968;?#26159;?#31181;?#19981;住要向您表示?#35838;剩?#36825;种?#35838;?#20307;现在您的儿?#29992;?#29486;身拯救的共和国?#38405;?#30340;?#34892;?#20043;?#23567;?#25105;祈求我们的天父减轻您的丧?#21448;?#30171;,使您只怀有对于已?#26159;?#20154;的美好回忆和庄严的?#38498;欄校?#24744;有这种?#38498;?#24863;是理所?#27604;?#30340;,因为您在?#26434;?#30340;祭坛上献出了代价如此昂贵的牺牲。



您最?#29616;?#30340;亚伯拉罕?林肯敬启

【作者简介】

亚伯拉罕?林肯(1809-1865)美国第十六任总统(1861-1865),共和党人。

The Literature of Knowledge And The Knowledge of Power

All the literature of knowledge builds only groundnuts, that are swept away by sloops, or confounded by the plow; but the literature of power builds nests in aerial altitudes of temples sacred from violation, or of forests inaccessible to fraud. This is a great prerogative of the power literature, and it is a greater which lies in the mode of its influence. The knowledge literature, like the fashion of this world, passes away. An encyclopaedia is its abstract ;and ,in this respect, it may be taken for its speaking symbol---that before one generation has passed, an encyclopaedia is superannuated; for it speaks through the dead memory and unimpassioned understanding, which have not the repose of higher faculties, but are continually enlarging and varying their phylacteries.But all literature properly so called---literature par excellence---for the very reason that it is so play, and the combinations into which the poetry of this planet has thrown our human passions of love and hatred, of admiration and contempt, exercise a power for bad or good over human life that cannot be contemplated, when stretching through many generations, without a sentiment allied to awe.

知识的文学与力量的文学

德?昆西

一切知识的文学都在地面上筑?#29627;?#32467;果不被洪水所冲堤,就被耕犁所掀翻;只有力量的文学在那巍巍苍穹间的圣殿之内,或在那高入云?#23454;纳种?#24005;营造自己的?#37319;?#20043;处,那是神圣不可侵犯、也是欺诈所无法企及的。这是力量的文学所独有的重大特权,而它影响于人类的方?#25509;?#20026;特殊。知识的文学,如时尚一样,与?#26412;?#36893;。百科全书正是此种文学的缩影,从这方面来看,似乎可以说是它活生生的象征:一个?#26469;形?#36807;去,一部百科全书?#32479;?#26087;过时了;因为,在它那里面所讲的不外是虽然存留在记忆?#23567;?#21364;已失去新意的东西,以及不带任何感情色?#23454;耐评恚?#22240;?#32781;?#29369;如经匣中的教条,?#35789;共?#20805;?#22919;洹⒙员?#33457;样,仍无法使得人的高尚精神恬?#33618;?#24687;。但是,一切当之无愧的文学--最优秀的文学--由于它比知识的文学更能垂之永久,它的影响与?#35829;緯上?#24212;比例,也就远为深邃,而象电光石火一般无孔不入。一方面,我们这个星球上的悲剧培养着人的感情,使之朝着某些方向发展;另一方面,我们这个星球上的诗歌又把人的爱与憎、赞美与鄙薄等激情组成种种的结合;这样共同形成强大的力量,对人类生活产生了或消极、或积极的作用,而这些作用往往会?#26377;?#35768;许多多?#26469;?#20196;人考虑之下不能不感到肃?#40644;?#25964;。

【作者简介】

德?昆西(1785-1859),英国浪漫主义散文名家,其代表作为《一个英国吸?#40644;?#32773;的陈述》。本文节选自其文章《知识的文学与力量的文学》。

The Power Is Unlimited

Besides which, there is a rarer thing than truth-namely power, or deep sympathy with truth. What is the ef-fect, for instance, upon society, of children? By the pity, by the tenderness, and by the peculiar modes of admiration which connect themselves with the helplessness, with the innocence, and with the simplicity of children, not only are the primal affections strengthened and continually renewed, but the qualities which are dearest in the sight of heaven---the frailty, for instance, which appeals to forbearance, the simplicity which is most alien from the worldly---are kept up in perpetual remembrance, and their ideals are continually refreshed. A purpose of the same nature is answered by the higher literature, viz., the literature of power. What do you learn from Paradise Lost? Nothing at all .What do you learn from a cookery-book? Something new, something that you did not know before, in every paragraph. But would you therefore put the wretched cookery-book on a higher level of estimation than the divine poem? What you owe to Milton is not any knowledge, of which a million separate items are still but a million of advancing steps on the same earthly level; what you owe is power---that is ,exercise and expansion to your own latent capacity of sympathy with the infinite, where every pulse and each separate influx is a step upward, a step ascending as upon a Jacob's ladder from earth to mysterious altitudes above the earth. All the steps of knowledge, from first to last, carry you further on the same plane, but could never raise you one foot above your ancient level of earth; whereas the very first step in power is a flight---is an ascending movement into another element where earth is forgotten.

力?#35838;?#38480;

德?昆西

此外,还有一种东西比真理更为神奇--那就是力量,或者说,对真理的深切感应。譬如,想一想儿童对于社会的影响吧。由于儿童的?#20857;?#26080;依、天真无?#21834;⒋科?#26080;伪而引起的种种特殊的赞叹怜爱之情,不仅使人的至情至性?#27426;系?#24471;到巩?#27631;透?#26032;,而且,由于脆弱?#21483;?#20102;宽容,天真象征着天堂,?#31185;釉独?#24320;世俗,因?#32781;?#36825;些在?#31995;?#38754;前最可宝贵的品质也就经常受到忆念,对它们的理想便可?#27426;系?#37325;温。高级的文学,即力量的文学,作用与此相类。?#21360;?#22833;乐?#21834;?#20320;能学到什么知识呢?什么也学不到。 从一本食?#26700;?#21448;能学到什么呢??#29992;?#19968;段都能学到你过去所不知道的?#25345;?#26032;知识。?#27426;?#22312;评定甲乙的时候,?#35757;?#20320;会因此就把这本微不足道的食谱看得比那部超凡入圣的诗篇还高明吗?我们?#29992;?#23572;顿那里学来的并不是什么知识,因为知识,哪怕有一百万条,也?#36824;?#26159;在尘俗的地面上开步一百万?#20255;?#20102;?#27426;?#24357;尔顿所给予我们的是力量--也就是说,运用自己潜在的感应能力,向着无?#23454;?#39046;域扩张,在那里,每一下脉动,每一次注入,都意味着上升一步,好似沿着雅各的天梯,从地面一步一步登上那奥秘莫测的苍穹。知识的一切步伐,从开始到终结,只能在同一水平面上将人往前运载,但却无法使人从原来的地面上提高一步;?#27426;?#21147;量所抬出的第一步就是?#32558;?#23601;是?#19978;?#21478;一种境界--在那里,尘世的一切全被忘却。

【作者简介】

德?昆西(1785-1859),英国浪漫主义散文名家,其代表作为《一个英国吸?#40644;?#32773;的陈述》。本文节选自其文章《知识的文学与力量的文学》。

Aesthetic Criticism

To see the object as in itself it really is , "has been justly said to be the aim of all true criticism whatever; and in aesthetic criticism the first step towards seeing one's object as it really is, is to know one's own impression as it really is, to discriminate it, to realize it distinctly. The objects with which aesthetic criticism deals---music, poetry, artistic and accomplished forms of human life---are indeed receptacles of so many powers or forces: they possess like the products of nature, so many virtues or qualities. What is this song or picture, this engaging personality presented in life or in a book, to me ? What effect does it really produce on me ? Does it give me pleasure? And if so, what sort or degree of pleasure? How is my nature modified by its presence, and under its influence? The answers to these questions are the original facts with which the aesthetic critic has to do; and ,as in the study of light, of morals, of number, one must realize such primary data for one's self, or not at all. And he who experiences these impressions strongly, and drives directly at the discrimination and analysis of them, has no need to trouble himself with the abstract question what beauty is in itself, or what its exact relation to truth or experience---metaphysical questions, as unprofitable as metaphysical questions elsewhere. He may pass them all by as being, answerable or not, of no interest to him.

审美批评

沃尔特?佩特



“发现某一事物本身的确切内容?#20445;?#26366;被人恰当地说成是一切真正的批评的目标?#27426;?#22312;审美批评?#26657;?#35201;想发现自己评论对象的确切内容,第一步必须了解个人印象的确切内容,必须对它加以辨别,对它清晰地认识。审美批评所讨论的对象--音乐,诗歌,人类生活的种种艺术的、完美的表?#20013;问?-实际上都是?#36861;?#32429;纭、各种动力和力量的凝聚,它们象大自然的一切产物那样,具备着各种不同的美质和特性。这么一首短歌,这么一幅图画,生活中或书本上出现的这么一个引人喜爱的人物,对我自己来说究竟意味着什么呢?它究竟在我身上产生了什么样的影响?它是否给我提供了乐趣?如果提供了,那么,又是哪一类和何等程度的乐趣?另外,由于它的出现,并在它影响下,我自己的性情又受到了怎样的?#25214;?--对于这些问题的答案便是审美批评家所要讨论的根本事实?#27426;?#19988;,正象对于光、对于?#26700;懟?#23545;于数字的研究那样,我们首先必须了解上述那些原始材料,否则,就等于什么也不了解。一个人只要强烈地感受着这种种印象,并且直截了当地对它们加以辨别和分析,就不必再为了“什?#35789;?#32654;”或者“它与真理或经验的确切关系如何”这一类抽象的问题而去费神--因为,这些形而上学的问题,如同其他的形而上学问题一样,都是不实?#23454;摹?#23545;它们答复与否无关宏旨,可以统统放过?#36824;堋?br>
【作者简介】

沃尔特?佩特(1839-1894),英国文?#24352;?#35780;家其成名之作《文艺复兴?#36153;?#31350;》贯穿唯美主义思想。本文便节选自此书。

Change Makes Life Beautiful

To regard all things and principles of things as inconstant modes or fashions has more and more become the tendency of modern thought. Let us begin with that which is without-our physical life. Fix upon it in one of its more exquisite intervals, the moment,for instance, of delicious recoil from the flood of water in summer heat. What is the whole physical life in that moment but a combination of natural elements to which science gives their names? But these elements, phosphorus and lime and delicate fibers, are present not in the human body alone : we detect them in places most remote from it. Our physical life is a perpetual motion of them ---the passage of the blood, the wasting and repairing of the lenses of the eye , the modification of the tissues of the brain under every ray of light and sound---processes which science reduces to simpler and more elementary forces. Like the elements of which we are composed, the action of these forces extends beyond us: it rusts iron and ripens corn.Far out on every side of us those elements are broadcast, driven in many currents; and birth and gesture and death and the springing of violets from the grave are but a few out of ten thousand resultant combinations. That clear, perpetual outline of face and limb is but an image of ours, under which we group thema design in a web, the actual threads of which pass out beyond it . This at least of flame---like our life has, that it is but the concurrence, renewed from moment to moment, of forces parting sooner or later on their ways.



生命美于变化

沃尔特?佩特

将一切事物和事物的原则统统看作经常变化着的形态或风?#26657;找?#25104;为近代思想界的趋?#21860;?#35753;我们从表面的事情--我们的生理活动说起。譬如说,选取这么一个微妙的时刻,即在酷暑中猛然浸入滔滔清流的那一?#26448;?#21644;极其愉快的感觉。在那一?#26448;?#38388;的全?#21487;?#29702;活动,?#35757;?#19981;是具有科学名称的各种元素的一种化合作用吗??#36824;?#36825;些元素,象?#20303;?#30707;灰、微细的纤维质,不仅存在于人体之?#26657;?#32780;且在与人体毫不相干的地方?#26448;?#26816;查出它们的存在。我们的生理活动--血液的流通,眼睛中水晶体的消耗和恢复,每一道光波、每一次声浪对于脑组织所引起的变异--都不外是这些元素的永久的运动,而科学把这些运动过程还原为更为简单和基本的力量的作用。正象我们身体所赖以构成的元素一样,这些力量在我们身体以外也同样发挥着作用--它可以使铁生锈,使谷物成熟。这些元素,在种种气流吹送之下,在我们身外向四面八方传播:人的诞生,人的姿态,人的死亡,以及在人的坟头上生长出?#19979;?#20848;--这?#36824;?#26159;成千上万化合结果的点滴例子而己。人类那轮廓?#32622;鰲?#38271;久不变的面颜和肢体,?#36824;?#26159;一种表象,在它那框架之内,我们好把种种化合的元素凝聚一团--这好象是蛛网的纹样,那织网的细?#30475;?#32593;中穿出,又引向他方。在这一点上,我们的生命有些象那火焰---它也是种种力量会合的结果,这会合虽?#27426;涎有?#37027;些力量却早晚要各自飘散。

【作者简介】

沃尔特?佩特(1839-1894),英国文?#24352;?#35780;家,其成名之作《文艺复兴?#36153;?#31350;》贯穿唯美主义思想。本文便节选自此书。

Breaking Habit

To burn always with this hard , gem-like flame, to maintain this ecstasy, is success in life. In a sense it might even be said that our failure is to form habits: for , after all, habit is relative to a stereotyped world, and meantime it is only the roughness of the dye that makes any two persons, things, situations, seem alike, While all melts under our feet, we may well grasp at any exquisite passion, or any contribution to knowledge that seems by a lifted horizon to set the spirit free for a moment, or any stirring of the senses, strange dyes, strange colors, and curious odors, or work of the artist's hands, or the face of one's friend. Not to discriminate every moment some passionate attitude in those about us, and in the very brilliancy of their gifts some tragic dividing of forces on their ways, is, on this short day of frost and sun, to sleep before evening. With this sense of the splendor of our experience and of its awful brevity, gathering all we are into one desperate effort to see and touch, we shall hardly have time to make theories about the things we see and touch. What we have to do is to be for ever curiously testing new opinions and courting new impressions, never acquiescing in a facile orthodoxy of Comet, or of Hegel, or of our own . Philosophical theories or ideas, as points of view, instruments of criticism, may help us to gather up what might otherwise pass unrecorded by us. "Philosophy is the microscope of thought".

打破习惯

沃尔特?佩特

闪耀着宝石般的光焰炽烈地燃烧,并?#20063;欢?#20445;持着这种精神亢奋的状态,乃是生命的胜利。在?#25345;?#24847;义上,甚至可以说:一旦形成?#25345;?#20064;惯,即意味着自己的失败。因为,归根结底,习惯总附于一个定?#35829;?#30340;?#32511;?#32780;在?#36136;?#30340;眼光下,两个人、两件事、两种情境常常会被看得彼此相似。只有当一切在我们脚下熔化,我们才能看清种种强烈的激情,种种似乎能提高人的眼界、使人精神豁然开?#23454;?#30693;识进步,种种感官的刺激,例如奇色异彩,奇香异味,以及艺术家的匠艺,或者自己某位朋?#35757;?#38754;容。我们与周围的人们相处,在任何时刻,如果一点看不出?#25345;?#21463;激情支配的姿态,从人们的光辉才华中竟然看不出?#25345;?#21147;量分配方面的悲剧,那么,在我们这既有冰霜、又有阳光的短暂?#27604;罩校?#23601;意味着不待黄昏来临便昏昏睡去。感到了?#26494;?#32463;验的五色?#22836;准百亢?#26080;常,我们拼出全部力气进行观察和?#21727;ィ?#21738;里还有时间去为自己观察和?#21727;?#21040;的事物制订出一套一套的理论?我们必需做的,是要?#27426;系?#26816;验新的意见、博取新的印象,而无论如何不能轻易接受?#36824;?#26159;康德、黑格尔或是我们自己的什么泛泛的正统学说。哲学理论、哲学概念,作为立论观点、批评工具,可以帮助我们把那些可能习焉不察、轻轻放过的事物进行搜集、纳入眼底。因为,?#32610;?#23398;是思想的显微镜?#34180;?br>
【作者简介】

沃尔特?佩特(1839-1894),英国文?#24352;?#35780;家,其成名之作《文艺复兴?#36153;?#31350;》贯穿唯美主义思想。本文便节选自此书。

Tragedy

To make a tragedy the artist must isolate a single element out of the totality of human experience and use that exclu sively as his material. Tragedy is something that is separated out from the Whole Truth, distilled from it, so to speek, as an essence is distilled from the living flower. Tragedy is chemically pure. Hence its power to act quickly and intensely on our feelings. All chemically pure art has this power to act upon us quickly and intensely. It is because of its chemical purity that tragedy so effectively performs functions of catharsis. It refines and corrects and gives a style to our emotional life, and does so swiftly, with power. Brought into contact with tragedy, the elements of our being fall, for the moment at any rate, into an ordered and beautiful pattern, as the iron filings arrange themselves under the influence of the magnet.Through all its individual variations, this pattern is always fundamentally of the same kind. From the reading or the hearing of a tragedy we rise with the feeling that:

Our friends are exultations, agonies,

And love, and man's unconquerable mind;

With the heroic conviction that we too would be unconquerable if subjected to the agonies, that in the midst of the agonies we too should continue to love, might even learn to exult. It is because it does these things to us that tragedy is felt to be so valuable. What are the values of Wholly Truthful art? What does it do to us that seems worth doing? Let us try to discover.

奥尔德斯?赫胥黎

为了做成一部悲剧,艺术家就得把?#25345;?#21333;一的元素从人类经验的总体中分解出来,并且把它当作独一无二的材料?#35789;?#29992;。悲剧,是从全面的真实中分离出来,或者说,从那里提炼出来,就象从鲜花中提炼的香精来。悲剧是有化学纯度的东西,所以它才能具备那种迅速而强烈地影响我们的力量。一切有化学纯度的艺术都具备这种迅速而强烈地影响我们的力量。--正是由于悲剧的这种化学纯度,它才非常有效地完成着它那净化感情的作用。它迅速而有力的澄清着、矫正着我们的感情生活,赋予它以一种正当的模式。一旦与悲剧相?#21727;ィ?#25105;们生命中的种种因素,至少在这短短时刻,便纳入一种井然有序、异常美好的规范之?#26657;?#27491;如铁屑在?#30424;?#30340;吸引下聚拢起来一样。尽管会有各种特殊变化,这个规范从分配上?#24213;?#26159;保持不变的。读罢或看完一部悲剧,我们心里恍然大悟,觉得--

极大的欢欣、强烈的痛苦都变成?#21152;眩?br>
爱情和不可征服的?#35829;?#20063;分外亲?#23567;?br>
我们豪迈地相信:一旦自己身遭苦难,同样也是不可征服的;处在苦难之?#26657;?#25105;们?#26434;?#33016;怀热情,甚至还要效法前人,意气昂扬。正因为悲剧能对我们起到这些作用,我们才觉得它非常宝贵。那么,什么又是具有全面真实性的艺术的价?#30340;?它究竟能对我们起到什么作用,才显出它的价?#30340;?让我们来尝试着考察一下。

【作者简介】

奥尔德斯?赫胥黎(1894-1963),英国著名文学家。本文节选自其文章《悲剧与全面的真实性》。

Suit Is Best

The proper force of words lies not in the words themselves, but in their application. A word may be a fine sounding word, of an unusual length, and very imposing from its learning and novelty, and yet in the connection in which it is introduced may be quite pointless and irrelevant, It is not pomp or pretension, but the adaptation of the expression to the idea, that clenches a writer's meaning: as it is not the size or glossiness of the materials, but their being fitted each to its place, that gives strength to the arch; or as the pegs and nails are as necessary to the support of the building as the larger timbers, and more so than the mere showy, unsubstantial ornaments. I hate anything that occupies more space than it is worth. I hate to see a load of bandboxes go along the street, and I hate to see a parcel of big words without anything in them. A person who dews not deliberately dimples of all his thoughts alike in cumbrous draperies and flimsy disguises may strike out twenty varieties of familiar everyday language, each coming somewhat nearer to the feeling he wants to convey, and at last not hit upon that particular and only one which may be said to be identical with the exact impression in his mind. This would seem to show that Mr. Cobalt is hardly right in saying that the first word that occurs is always the best. It may be a very good one ; and yet a better may present itself on reflection or from time to time . It may be suggested naturally, however, and spontaneously, from a fresh and lively conception of the subject .

适合的才是最好的

词汇的力量不在词汇本身,而在词汇的应用。一个音节嘹亮的长字,就其本身的学术性和新奇感来说,可能是令人叹赏的,?#27426;?#25226;它放在某句上下文之?#26657;?#35828;?#27426;?#20498;会牛头?#27426;?#39532;嘴。这是因为要?#38750;斜?#36798;作者的意思,关键并不在文词是否华丽,堂皇,而在于文词是否切合内容;正象在建筑?#26657;?#35201;使拱门坚固,关键不在于材料的大小和光泽,而在于它们用在那里是否恰好严丝?#25103;臁?#22240;?#32781;?#22312;建筑物?#26657;?#30722;木钉有?#26412;?#19982;大件木料同等重要,而其支撑作用肯定?#23545;?#32988;过那些徒有其表、不切实用的装饰?#32771;?#25105;讨厌那些白占地方的东西,讨厌一大堆空纸盒装在车上招摇过?#26657;?#20063;讨厌那些写在纸面上的大而无实际内容的字眼。一个?#35829;?#25991;章,只要他不是立志要把自己的真意用重重锦绣帐幔、?#24756;?#22810;余伪装完全遮掩起来,他总会从熟悉的日常用语中想出一二十种说法,一个比一个更接近他所要表达的情?#26657;?#21482;怕到了最后,他竟会拿?#27426;?#20027;意要用哪一种说法才能恰如其分地表达自己的心意哩!如此说来,考拜特先生所谓最先?#26009;?#33041;际之词自然是最好的说法未必可靠。这样出现的字眼也许很好,?#27426;?#32463;过一次又一次推敲,还会发现更好的字眼。这种字眼,要经过围绕内容进行清醒而活泼的构思,才能够自自然然的想到。

【作者简介】

威廉?赫兹里特(1778-1830),十九世纪初英国著名的浪漫主义散文家。本文节选自其名篇《论平易的文体》。

Ignorance Make One Happy

The average man who uses a telephone could not explain how a telephone works. He takes for granted the telephone, the railway train, the linotype ,the airplane, as our grandfathers took for granted the miracles of the gospels. He neither questions nor understands them. It is as though each of us investigated and made his own only a tiny circle of facts. Knowledge outside the day's work is regarded by most men as a gewgaw. Still we are constantly in reaction against our ignorance. We rouse ourselves at intervals and speculate. We revel in speculations about anything at all---about life after death or about such questions as that which is said to have puzzled Aristotle,"why sneezing from noon to midnight was good, but from night to noon unlucky." One of the greatest joys known to man is to take such a flight into ignorance in search of knowledge. The great pleasure of ignorance is, after all, the pleasure of asking questions. The man who has lost this pleasure or exchanged it for the pleasure of dogma, which is the pleasure of answering, is already beginning to stiffen. One envies so inquisitive a man as Jewell ,who sat down to the study of physiology in his sixties. Most of us have lost the sense of our ignorance long before that age. We even become vain of our squirrel's hoard of knowledge and regard increasing age itself as a school of omniscience. We forget that Socrates was famed for wisdom not because he was omniscient but because he realized at the age of seventy that he still knew nothing.

无知常乐

罗伯特?林德

普通人只会使用电话,却无法解释电话的工作原理。他把电话、火车、铸造排?#21482;?#39134;机都看作?#27604;?#20043;事,就象我们的祖父一代把福音书里的奇迹故事视为理所?#27604;?#19968;样。对于这些事,他既不去怀疑,也不去了解。我们每个人似乎?#27426;院?#23567;?#27573;?#20869;的某几件事才真正下工夫去了解、弄清楚。大部分人把日常工作以外的一切知识统统当作花哨无用的玩意儿。?#27426;?#23545;于我们的无知,我们还是时时抗拒着。我们有时振作起来,进行思索。我们随便找一个什么题目,对之思考,甚至入迷--关于死后的生命,或者关于某些据说亚里士多德也感到大惑不解的问题,例如:“打喷嚏,从中午到子夜则吉,从子夜至中午则凶,其故安在?”为求知识而陷入无知,这是人类所欣赏的最大乐?#36718;?#19968;。归根结底,无知的极大乐趣即在于提出问题。一个人,如果失去了这种提?#23454;?#20048;趣,或者把它换成了教条的答?#31119;?#24182;且以此为乐,那么,他的头脑已经开始僵化了。我们羡慕象裘伊这样的勤学好问之人,他到了六十多岁居然还能坐下来研?#21487;?#29702;学。我们多数人不到他这么大的岁数就早已丧失了自?#20309;?#30693;的感觉了。我们甚至对自己一点点?#28526;?#30340;知识感到沾沾自?#29627;?#32780;把与?#31449;?#22686;的年龄看作是培养无所不知的天然学堂。我们忘记了:苏格拉底之所以以智慧名垂后世,并非因为他无所不知,而是因为他到了七十高龄还能明白自己仍然一无所知。

【作者简介】

罗伯特?林德(1879-1949),英国随?#39318;?#23478;。本文节选自其名篇?#27573;?#30693;常乐》。

The Arts of Informal Essay Writers

We may follow any mood, we may look at life in fifty different ways---the only thing we must not do is to despise or deride,because of ignorance or prejudice, the influences which affect others; because the essence of all experience is that we should perceive something which we do not begin by knowing, and learn that life has a fullness and a richness in all sorts of diverse ways which we do not at first even dream of suspecting.

The essayist, then, is in his particular fashion an interpreter of life, a critic of life. He does not see life as the historian, or as the philosopher, or as the poet, or as the novelist, and yet he has a touch of all these. He is not concerned with discovering a theory of it all, or fitting the various parts of it into each other. He works rather on what is called the analytic method, observing, recording, interpreting, just as things strike him, and letting his fancy play over their beauty and significance;the end of it all being this; that he is deeply concerned with the charm and quality of things, and gentlest light, so that at least he may make others love life a little better, and prepare them for its infinite variety and alike for its joyful and mournful surprises.

随?#39318;?#23478;的艺术

亚瑟?克里斯托夫?本森

我们可以遵循任何一条思绪,也可以从几十个角度来看待?#26494;?-但千万不可由于无知和偏见而鄙视或嘲笑别人所接受的种种影响;因为,全部?#26494;?#32463;验的精髓即在于:我们要想了解什?#35789;?#29289;,总要从不知?#25597;?#22987; ?#27426;?#19988;,还要知道,我们原来从未梦想过的千变万化的生活方式,恰恰体现了?#26494;?#30340;充实和丰满。

因?#32781;?#38543;?#39318;?#23478;以其特殊的方式充当了?#26494;?#30340;解说员,?#26494;?#30340;评论家。他观察?#26494;?#19981;象历史家,不象哲学家,不象诗人,也不象小说家,?#27426;?#36825;些人的特点他又?#21152;?#19968;点儿。他所关切的并非发现全部?#26494;?#30340;哲理,或者把?#26494;?#21508;个不同的方面凑在一起,进行装配。他工作时所采用的是所谓分析的方法,即按照事物在自己心里留下的印象,观察着,记录着,解?#24213;擰?#38543;着兴之所至去体察万事万物的美好和意义,而这一切又是为了这样一个目的:随?#39318;?#23478;所深切关心的乃是事物的魅力和特性,并想把它呈现在最明净、最柔和的光亮之下,好使得别人更加热爱?#26494;?#24182;对于?#26494;?#24403;中无穷的变化在思想上有所准?#31119;还?#37027;是意外的欢?#21482;?#26159;意外的悲伤。

【作者简介】

亚瑟?克里斯托夫?本森(1862-1925),英国作家。本文节选自其散文《随?#39318;?#23478;的艺术》。

Open Your Eyes

He who has much looked on at the childish satisfaction of other people in their hobbies, will regard his own with only a very ironical indulgence. He will not be heard among the dogmatists. He will have a great and cool allowance for all sorts of people and opinions. If he finds no out -of -the- way truths, he will identify himself with one very burning falsehood.His way takes him along a by-road, not much frequented, but very even and pleasant, which is called Commonplace Lane, and leads to the Belvedere of Common-sense. Thence he shall command an agreeable, if no very noble prospect; and the Sunrise, he will be contentedly aware of a sort of morning hour upon all sublunary things ,with an army of shadows running speedily and in many different directions into the great daylight of eternity. The shadows and the generations, the shrill doctors and the plangent wars, go by into ultimate silence and emptiness; but underneath all this, a man may see, out of the Belvedere windows, much green and peaceful landscape; many fire-lit parlors; good people laughing, drinking , and making love as they did before the Flood or the Errant Revolution; and the old shepherd telling his tale under the hawthorn.

【注释】



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